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Gravure plate-making electroplating process-copper plating: the configuration method and process conditions of the plating solution


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Gravure plate-making electroplating process-copper plating: the configuration method and process conditions of the plating solution

Gravure plate-making electroplating process-copper plating: the configuration method and process conditions of the plating solution

1. Preparation method of plating solution
First dissolve the calculated amount of copper sulfate in 2/3 of the prepared volume of warm water, when the copper sulfate is completely dissolved and cooled, slowly add sulfuric acid under constant stirring (adding sulfuric acid is an exothermic reaction), static plating solution and filter , After adding the specified additives, the trial plating is qualified and it can be put into production.
2. Process conditions
(1) Current density (DK)
The current density is 15-18A/dm2 when the drum is fully immersed, and 20-30A/dm2 when it is half-immersed. Whether the current density can be increased depends on the composition of the plating solution and other conditions. For example, increasing the temperature of the plating solution, strengthening agitation, and high concentration of the plating solution can all increase the working current density.
(2) Temperature
The bath temperature is 40±1℃ for full immersion and 38±1℃ for half immersion. If the bath temperature is too low, not only the allowable working current density is low, but also copper sulfate is easy to crystallize; if the bath temperature is high, the conductivity of the bath can be enhanced, but the plating layer will be rough; if the bath temperature exceeds 45℃, The copper layer will become soft and the layout will turn white.
(3) Copper plating time
The copper plating time should be determined according to the required hardness of the copper layer, generally 1 to 1.5 hours per tank.
(4) Anode in copper plating tank
The anode is a phosphor-copper ball with a diameter of 40mm, and the appropriate phosphorus content is 0.035-0.06%. At present, the domestic copper ball contains more than 0.05% phosphorus, while the imported phosphorus content is only 0.038%, but the price is too expensive. Phosphor copper balls often produce copper powder in the sulfate copper plating bath, which leads to burrs and roughness in the coating. The phosphorus content of the copper ball should be appropriate and the phosphorus distribution should be uniform, so as to reduce copper powder and avoid blisters. If the phosphorus content of the copper ball is too high, a thicker film will be formed on the surface of the copper ball, making the anode difficult to dissolve, resulting in a decrease in the copper ion content in the plating solution.
(5) Anode distance
The anode distance is 50~80mm.
(6) Plate roller speed
The rotation speed of the plate roller changes according to the diameter of the plate roller, and the linear speed is generally controlled at 0.8-1.2m/s.
(7) Selection and use of hardness agent
According to the company's equipment conditions, choosing the hardness agent with the best electroplating performance is an important link, because the hardness of the copper layer is mainly controlled by adjusting the amount of additives in the plating solution.
The acid fast electroplating hard copper additive series of Maituo Company is a good choice. Its advantages are long shelf life (up to more than 1 year), easy increase in hardness (up to 220HV or more), good brightness and leveling properties (appropriate reduction of plating Copper thickness, saving copper balls and electricity), good positioning effect, high temperature resistance, anti-oxidation and other advantages, very suitable for the equipment process conditions of domestic plate making plants, high cost performance, professional service team and technical research and development team, professional configuration Analysis and testing equipment, so it is favored by plate making companies.
The proportion of copper plating solution and the amount of hardness additives must be optimal. It is the key to ensure that the brittleness and flexibility of the copper-plated layer reach the balance, so that the copper-plated layer can reach the best hardness, and it is also beneficial to prolong the storage time and reduce the dosage. If the amount is too much, the copper-plated layer is too hard and brittle, easy to wear and engraving needles; strong flexibility, burrs are likely to appear when engraving at 30° or 38°, so use a spatula when engraving. The method of judging toughness is: the copper skin is folded once and repeatedly, that is, it is better to be broken after two folds.
The problem that often occurs in actual production is that the hardness of the copper layer is either too high or too soft and unstable. For example, the sulfate ion is low and the current is large, resulting in high hardness, too brittle, and poor toughness, resulting in cracking of the plate cylinder after a long storage time; the copper layer is too soft, resulting in deformation of the dots. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve the best matching of various elements to balance the brittleness and flexibility of the copper layer and maintain stability, which requires strict and careful management.

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